Study on Progressive Collapse of RC Structures

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Experimental investigation of RC beam-slab substructures against progressive collapse subject to an edge-column-removal scenario Engineering Structures, 2016 Download
Effects of seismic and progressive collapse designs on the vulnerability of RC frame structures Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities-ASCE, 2016 Download
Experimental investigation of progressive collapse resistance of one-way reinforced concrete beam-slab substructures under a middle-column-removal scenario Engineering Structures Download
Numerical investigation of progressive collapse resistance of RC frames subject to column removals from different stories Advances in Structural Engineering, 2015 Download
Progressive collapse resistance of two typical high-rise RC frame shear wall structures Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities-ASCE, 2015 Download
An energy-based assessment on dynamic amplification factor for linear static analysis in progressive collapse design of ductile RC frame structures Advances in Structural Engineering, 2014 Download
Progressive collapse resistance demand of RC frames under catenary mechanism ACI Structural Journal, 2014 Download
Progressive collapse resistance demand of RC frame structures based on energy method (I): beam mechanism Journal of Building Structures, 2011 Download
Progressive collapse resistance demand of RC frame structures based on energy method (II): catenary mechanism Journal of Building Structures, 2011 Download
An improved tie force method for progressive collapse resistance design of reinforced concrete frame structures Engineering Structures, 2011 Download
Study on the Progressive Collapse Mechanism of RC Frame Structures Building Science, 2011 Download
Study on progressive collapse-resisting capacity of RC frame structures based on pushdown analysis Journal of Shenyang Jianzhu University (Natural Science), 2011 Download
Influence of slabs on the progressive collapse behavior of structures Sichuan Building Science, 2010 Download
Design method on the progressive-collapse-resistance of RC frames Building Structure, 2010 Download
Verification and analysis on foreign progressive collapse prevention design methods of RC frame structures Building Structure, 2010 Download
Simulation of structural collapse with coupled finite element-discrete element method Proc. Computational Structural Engineering, 2009 Download
Study on design method to resist progressive collapse for reinforced concrete frames Engineering Mechanics, 2008 Download
Study on the design methods to resist progressive collapse for building structures Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Structural Engineering for Young Experts, 2008 Download
Application of fiber model for progressive collapse analysis of reinforced concrete frames Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, 2008 Download
Simulation for concrete structures under various disasters: model development and engineering application Proc. 2nd Int. Forum on Advances in Structural Engineering, 2008 Download
Numerical simulation for the progressive collapse of concrete building due to earthquake Proc. the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2008 Download
Collapse prevention of building structures: a lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake Journal of Building Structures Download
Tie force method for progressive collapse resistance of structures Proc. 10th National Conference on fundamental theory and engineering application of concrete, Aug. 2008, Download
Design Method to Resist Progressive Collapse for a Three-Story RC Frame Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology, 2007 Download
Progressive collapse of structures: introduction and comparison of standards Proc. 6th National Conference on Safety Protection for Engineering Structures. 2007. Download
Simulation for the Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Frame under Blast Load with Fiber Model Blasting, 2007 Download
Study on the Frame and Soil Model in Collapse Analysis Computer Aided Engineering, 2006

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Dynamic Finite Element Simulation for the Collapse of World Trade Center China Civil Engineering Journal, 2001

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Progressive collapse resistance demand of RC frame structures based on energy method (I): beam mechanism,
Journal of Building Structures, 2011, 32(11): 1-8.

Abstract£ºThe key issue of progressive collapse (PC) design method is to determine the PC resistance demand of the structures with members removed due to accidental action. The empirical parameters that are adopted in the design methods of the existing codes are difficult to reasonably consider the effect of nonlinear and dynamic behavior during the PC process of building structures due to its weak theoretical basis. A theoretical framework of the PC resistance demand analysis for RC frame structures is established based on the energy conservation principle. In this framework, the relationship between the nonlinear dynamic and linear static PC resistance demands for RC frame structures with beam mechanism to resist PC is derived. The influences of nonlinear and dynamic behaviors are comprehensively considered so that the nonlinear dynamic PC resistance demands can be obtained using the linear static analysis. At last, the empirical parameters in existing codes are discussed and the proposed demand relationship based on the energy conservation principle is validated through numerical examples.
Keyword£ºRC frame structure, progressive collapse, beam mechanism, resistance demand relationship, energy conservation principle

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Progressive collapse resistance demand of RC frame structures based on energy method (II): catenary mechanism,
Journal of Building Structures, 2011, 32(11): 9-16.

Abstract£ºThe key issue of progressive collapse (PC) design for RC frame structures at large deformation stage is to calculate the PC resistance demand of the structures under catenary mechanism. The existing design codes for PC design are unsafe because of ignoring the effect of nonlinear dynamic behavior of PC resistance demand under catenary mechanism. According to the theoretical framework of the PC resistance demand analysis based on the energy conservation principle, the relationship between the nonlinear dynamic and nonlinear static PC resistance demands for RC frame structures under catenary mechanism is derived. And the theoretical method to calculate the PC resistance demand of RC frame structures under catenary mechanism is established. At last, the proposed method describing the PC resistance demand relationship of RC frames with catenary mechanism is validated through numerical examples.
Keyword£ºRC frame structure, progressive collapse, catenary mechanism, resistance demand relationship, energy conservation principle

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An improved tie force method for progressive collapse resistance design of reinforced concrete frame structures
Engineering Structures, 2011, 33(10): 2931-2942.

Abstract: Progressive collapse of structures refers to local damage due to occasional and abnormal loads, which in turn leads to the development of a chain reaction mechanism and progressive and catastrophic failure. The tie force (TF) method is one of the major design techniques for resisting progressive collapse, whereby a statically indeterminate structure is designed through a locally simplified determinate structure by assumed failure mode. The method is also adopted by the BS8110-1:1997, Eurocode 1, and DoD 2005. Due to the overly simplified analytical model used in the current practical codes, it is necessary to further investigate the reliability of the code predictions. In this research, a numerical study on two reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures demonstrates that the current TF method is inadequate in increasing the progressive collapse resistance. In view of this, the fundamental principles inherent in the current TF method are examined in some detail. It is found that the current method fails to consider such important factors as load redistribution in three dimensions, dynamic effect, and internal force correction. As such, an improved TF method is proposed in this study. The applicability and reliability of the proposed method is verified through numerical design examples.

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Study on the Progressive Collapse Mechanism of RC Frame Structures,
Building Science, 2011, 27(5): 12-18.

Abstract: The progressive collapse (PC) mechanism of two typical non-integrated slab and integrated cast-in-situ slab reinforced concrete (RC) frames, with different seismic fortification levels, is analyzed by the nonlinear dynamic alternate path (AP) method. Firstly, the two representative PC modes are summarized and it is found that the insufficient lateral stiffness of columns leads to propagation of collapse in horizontal direction. And then, the PC resisting contribution of framed beams at different locations of the frames is studied by analyzing the mechanical response of the frames with initial damage occurring at different locations. Results indicate that all beams are able to provide PC resistance by beam action but only the continuous beams, with enough horizontal constraint at both ends, are able to provide PC resistance by catenary action. At last, the influence of slabs and seismic design on PC resistance of the two RC frames is discussed by analyzing the PC law of RC frames.
Keywords: concrete frame; progressive collapse mechanism; nonlinear dynamic alternate path analysis

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Study on progressive collapse-resisting capacity of RC frame structures based on pushdown analysis,
Journal of Shenyang Jianzhu University (Natural Science), 2011, 27(1): 10-18.

Abstract£ºhe law of the progressive collapse (PC) -resisting capacity of the typical reinforced concrete (RC) frames is analyzed to provide a reference for PC design and researches. The PC-resisting capacity of the typical non-integrated slab and the integrated cast-in-situ slab reinforced concrete (RC) frames, with different seismic fortification levels, is compared by the nonlinear static Pushdown method. It is found that the uncoordinated development of internal forces of beams on different stories leads to the lower PC-resisting capacity of the frame when multi-storey frame beams commonly resist PC. The PC-resisting capacity of the frame under the beam action and catenary action is dominated by the flexural capacity and tensile capacity of frame beams respectively. After seismic design, the PC-resisting capacity of the frame under the beam action is significantly enhanced but the capacity of the frame under the catenary action is improved slightly. The PC-resisting capacity of the frame under the beam action is significantly enhanced by integrated slab but for the capacity of the frame under the catenary action the enhancement extent relates to the effective flange width of slabs.
Keywords£ºoncrete frame; progressive collapse-resisting capacity; nonlinear static Pushdown analysis; seismic design; slab

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Influence of slabs on the progressive collapse behavior of structures,
Sichuan Building Science, 2010, 36(2): 5-10.

Abstract£ºThe progressive collapse of the building structures due to accidents has become a hot research topic of civil engineering all around the world. Floor or roof slab, as one of major structural elements, has important contribution to the integration of structures, and therefore could greatly enhance the progressive collapse resistance of structures. But the influence of slabs was not taken into consideration in the existing research work or design specifications. In this paper, mainly referring to the design process proposed in DoD 2005, the collapse processes of two typical Chinese 8-story reinforced concrete (RC) frames with and without slabs respectively are simulated and compared. Then the influence of slabs on the progressive collapse behavior of structures is studied and the result proofs that the slabs can greatly improve the progressive collapse resistance of structures.
Key words£ºprogressive collapse; slabs; concrete frame; simulation;

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Design method on the progressive-collapse-resistance of RC frames,
Building Structure, 2010, 40(2): 1-7.

Abstract: This paper firstly introduced the design objectives and corresponding specifications of the progressive-collapse-prevetion in different codes of foreign countries. Based on a number of calculations, with the consideration of the actual structures designed according to Chinese codes, and the design objectives for Chinese structures, the design methods for the progressive-collapse-prevention of Chinese RC frame structures are proposed in this paper, which include conceptual method, tie force (TF) method and alternative path (AP) method, together with corresponding detail design requirements.
Keywords: frame structure, progressive-collapse-resistance, tie force method, alternative path, detail design

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Verification and analysis on foreign progressive collapse prevention design methods of RC frame structures,
Building Structure, 2010, 40(2): 8-12.

Abstract£ºCurrently, the progressive collapse of the building structures due to accidents has become a serious threat to the public safety. Since the collapse of the Ronan Point Tower in United Kingdom in 1968, North America and Europe have conducted more than 40 years of research to this issue and developed corresponding design codes and design guides, such as GSA 2003, DoD 2005 and EuroCode 1. However, codes in China have not yet provided details on the resistance of progressive collapse. Mainly referring to the design process proposed in DoD 2005, the capacity to resist progressive collapse of a typical Chinese 8-story reinforced concrete (RC) frame is analyzed. Then the frame is redesigned with the tie force method and the alternate path method proposed in DoD 2005 to provide examples for the progressive collapse prevention design for Chinese engineers. And some problems when applying foreign codes to Chinese buildings are pointed out.
Keywords£ºprogressive collapse; concrete frame; tie force method; alternate path method

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Simulation of Structural Collapse with Coupled Finite Element-Discrete Element Method
Proc. Computational Structural Engineering, Yuan Y, Cui JZ and Mang H(eds.), Jun. 22-24, 2009, Springer, Shanghai:127-135.

Abstract. Structural progressive collapse is a great threat to life safety and therefore it is necessary to study its mechanism in detail. Numerical simulation is significant to study the whole process of progressive collapse in structural level. Since collapse is a complicated procedure from continuum into discrete fragments, numerical model should be competent in nonlinear deformation before collapse and breaking and crashing of fragments after collapse. Coupled Finite element-discrete element method on simulating structural progressive collapse is proposed to meet the requirements. Relatively accurate models, such as fiber model and multi-shell shell model, are introduced to construct the finite element model of structure. In the analysis, the failed finite elements will be removed and replaced with granular discrete elements according to the criteria of equivalent total mass and volume so that the impacting and heaping of fragments can be taken into account. The sample with the coupled method shows that this method not only possesses the advantages of finite element method but also simulates the behavior of fragments well.
Keywords: Finite element, discrete element, coupling calculation, progressive collapse, numerical model.

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Study on design method to resist progressive collapse for reinforced concrete frames
Engineering Mechanics, 2008, 25(Sup.2): 150-157.

Abstract: This paper summarizes the major design methods and classification-design systems in foreign codes to resist progressive collapse. And then the alternate path (AP) method and tie force (TF) method in the progressive design for reinforced concrete (RC) frames are studied. Firstly, based on the analyzing the nonlinear dynamic AP method, the principle and design factors of the linear static AP method are analyzed, and moreover, design factors suitable for Chinese structures are suggested. Secondly, the inapplicability of the TF method in foreign codes to enhance Chinese RC frames is studied. The calculating model of foreign TF method is improved and a TF method considering space load paths is suggested. Both the linear static AP method and the TF method suggested by this paper are verified by design.
Key words: reinforced concrete frame; progressive collapse design; nonlinear dynamic alternate path method; linear static alternate path method; tie force method

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Study on the design methods to resist progressive collapse for building structures
Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Structural Engineering for Young Experts, Oct. 2008, Changsha:478-483.

Abstract: Since the collapse of the Ronan Point Tower in United Kingdom in 1968, the progressive collapse resistance of building structures has attracted a global attention. Important foreign design codes have developed their specifications for building structures to resist progressive collapse, but the related research is still lack in China. This paper presents a series of researches by the Department of Civil Engineering in Tsinghua University on progressive collapse resistance of building structures. The existing design methods are briefly summarized, and two major design methods, which are alternate path (AP) method and tie force (TF) method, are proposed together with feasible procedure and carefully studied factors that are suitable for Chinese structures. The effects of each proposed methods are verified with nonlinear dynamic simulations and the additional cost due to progressive collapse resistance design is compared.
Keywords: building structure; progressive collapse design; nonlinear dynamic alternate path method; linear static alternate path method; tie force method

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Application of fiber model for progressive collapse analysis of reinforced concrete frames,
Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Oct. 2008, Beijing, CDROM

Abstract£ºThe progressive collapse of the building structures due to accidents has become a hot research topic of civil engineering all around the world. The researches and designs on progressive collapse are based on accurately simulation for the failure process of whole structural systems. However, due to the complicated material and geometric nonlinearity and large computational workload in collapse simulation for a real reinforced concrete (RC) structure, normal finite element (FE) analysis with solid elements are not feasible in collapse researches. Hence, a fiber beam model is proposed in this work to simulate the collapse of RC frame. The fiber beam model is firstly verified with a collapse test of a planar RC frame. And then following the design process proposed in DoD 2005, the collapse processes of two typical Chinese 8-story RC frames with and without slabs respectively are simulated and compared. The influence of slabs on the progressive collapse behavior of structures is studied and the result proofs that the slabs can greatly improve the progressive collapse resistance of structures.
Keywords£ºfiber model; progressive collapse; simulation; reinforced concrete frame; slabs

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Simulation for concrete structures under various disasters: model development and engineering application
Proc. 2nd Int. Forum on Advances in Structural Engineering, Oct. 2008, Dalian: 653-660.

Abstract: Engineering structures could be destroyed by disaster loads, such as earthquake, fire, blast et al. In concrete structures, frames, shear walls and slabs are major structural elements, and therefore accurate simulation for the nonlinear behavior of them in various disasters is the key problem for the researches on disaster resistance of concrete structures. The Department of Civil Engineering in Tsinghua University developed fiber beam model and multi-layer shell model for the ultimate analysis of structures. These models could accurately simulate the nonlinear failure process of concrete structures in earthquake, fire, blast, progressive collapse et al. And with the high efficiency of these models, they can be used in the whole process simulation of real large-scale complicated RC structures under various disasters. This paper presents the principles of the models and their typical applications in researches and practices.
Keywords: disaster simulation; fiber model; multi-layer shell model; dynamic large deformation computation; thermal-mechanical coupled computation

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Numerical simulation for the progressive collapse of concrete building due to earthquake
Proc. the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China, CDROM.

ABSTRACT : Collapse is a critical ultimate state for buildings under earthquake. Though collapse should theoretically be avoid for any buildings under any earthquake, it is still very important to study the collapse behavior of buildings so as to get a better understanding for the collapse mechanism and to find efficient method to against it. Progressive collapse, which means that collapse of whole building due to local weak stories or weak zones, is a most common failure mode in earthquake. And as its collapse process highly depends on the whole structural system, numerical simulation becomes a major method to study it. With the fiber-beam-element model and multi-layer-shell-element model, which is developed by Tsinghua University for reinforced concrete (RC) frames and RC shear-walls respectively, the extreme nonlinear behavior of RC structural elements can be properly simulated including the cycle behavior under coupled axial force-bending moment-shear force, the breakdown of structural elements at ultimate states, and the contact between structural elements during the collapse. Simple RC frames and RC frame-shear wall structures are firstly used to demonstrate and to benchmark the capacity of the numerical model, and real complicated buildings are analyzed to study the failure mechanism of the structures.
KEYWORDS: progressive collapse, earthquake, numerical model, nonlinear, reinforced concrete

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Collapse prevention of building structures: a lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake
Journal of Building Structures, 2008, 29(4): 42-50

Abstract: The aseismic capacity of engineering structures is the first line in the earthquake defense system of the society. Building collapse is one of the major earthquake devastating consequences. Damages of buildings generally reflect the degree of earthquake disaster. As a result, the aseismic capacity of building structures, especially their capacity to prevent collapse, is of great importance to the overall earthquake defense system of the society. Based on analyzing the building seismic damage in the Wenchuan earthquake, methods to increase the overall aseismic capacity of building structures are discussed in the framework of system theory. Some key problems and suggestions for seismic design, especially for increasing the capacity to prevent collapse of building structures are proposed. It is shown that: the safety margin of building structural systems can be divided into 3 levels: fundamental, integral and unexpected safety margins. The overall seismic capacity and collapse prevention of building structures are mainly determined by the integral safety margin and unexpected safety margin. Lack of unexpected safety margin is the main reasons of the severe building damage in Wenchuan earthquake. The unexpected safety margin of a structural system mainly comes from its robustness, stability and integrity. Research on the integral and unexpected safety margins of building structures is still limited. Corresponding requirements and specifications in current design code for building structures need to be improved.
Keywords: Wenchuan earthquake, building seismic damage, seismic system, collapse prevention, robustness, stability, structural system

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Tie force method for progressive collapse resistance of structures
Proc. 10th National Conference on fundamental theory and engineering application of concrete, Aug. 2008, Dalian, 391-396.

Abstract£ºTie force (TF) method is one of the major design methods proposed by foreign codes to resist progressive collapse, but the related researches are still lack in China. TF method is convenient to implement because it does not need to calculate the response of the whole structure. However, as too many assumptions have been set to build up this method, the empirical factors are needed to be carefully checked to guarantee the safety of the TF design. This paper summarized the conceptions and specifications of TF methods in foreign codes. Then foreign TF methods were proved to be not safety for Chinese concrete frames with nonlinear finite element dynamic analysis. In order to explain this phenomenon, the drawbacks in foreign TF methods were pointed out from the discussion of the fundamental principles of TF methods. And the suggestions from these discussions will be helpful to setup a feasible TF method in China.
Keywords: concrete frame structures£»progressive collapse; design codes; tie force method

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Design Method to Resist Progressive Collapse for a Three-Story RC Frame
Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology, 2007, 8(6): 659-664

Abstract£ºCurrently, the progressive collapse of the structures has become a serious threat to the public safety. Since the collapse of the Ronan Point Tower in United Kingdom in 1968, North America and Europe have researched on this issue for more than 30 years and developed relevant design codes and design guides, such as GSA 2003, DoD 2005 and EuroCode 1. However, codes in China have not yet proposed in detail on the resistance of progressive collapse. Hence, based on the design process proposed in DoD2005, the capacity to resist progressive collapse of a typical Chinese 3-story reinforced concrete (RC) frame is analyzed. Then the frame is re-designed with the Tie Force Method and the Alternate Path Method proposed in DoD 2005 to provide examples for the progressive collapse prevention design for Chinese frame structures. And some problems when applying foreign code to Chinese buildings are pointed out.
Key words£ºprogressive collapse; concrete frame; simulation; tie force method; alternate path method

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Progressive collapse of structures: introduction and comparison of standards
Proc. 6th National Conference on Safety Protection for Engineering Structures. Luoyang, 2007. 195-200.

Abstract: Currently, the progressive collapse of the structures has become a serious threat to the public safety. Since the collapse of the Ronan Point Tower in United Kingdom in 1968, north America and Europe have conducted more than 30 years of research to this issue and developed relevant design codes and design guides. However, codes in China have not yet provided details on the resistance of progressive collapse. In this paper, the corresponding design specifications for the progressive collapse prevention in the main foreign design codes (e.g.,ACI 318-02£¬GSA 2003£¬DoD 2005¡¢EuroCode1¡¢BS8100) are summarized and compared. Then, the major design methods to prevent progressive collapse are proposed and suggestions are given for the Chinese codes.
Key words: progressive collapse codes design method

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Simulation for the Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Frame under Blast Load with Fiber Model
Blasting, 24(2), 2007, 1-6.

Abstract: More and more attentions have been given to the simulation of collapse of structures under blast load. In this work, the collapse of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame under blast load is simulated with the fiber model based program THUFIBER, which is developed with MSC.MARC commercial finite element (FE) software. The flexural and shear failures of RC frame designed according to Chinese building codes have been considered in THUFIBER. The numerical results show that THUFIBER can correctly simulate the collapse of RC frame structure. And several important parameters are discussed with the FE model.

Keywords: blast, collapse, fiber model, reinforced concrete, finite element

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Study on the Frame and Soil Model in Collapse Analysis
Computer Aided Engineering, 2006, 15(Sup.), 417-420.

Abstract: Based on the common finite element software of MSC.Marc, with the convenient secondary development capacity, special models for reinforced concrete (RC) frame and soil are developed, in which the RC beams and columns are simulated with the fiber model based program THUFIBER, while the soil is simulated with a modified Drucker-Prager model. The computational results show that with the outstanding nonlinear capacity and secondary development function, the superstructure and soil can be properly simulated.

Key words: MSC.Marc, reinforced concrete frame, fiber model, soil model

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Dynamic Finite Element Simulation for the Collapse of World Trade Center
China Civil Engineering Journal,34(6), 2001,8~10

Abstract: Simulation for the Collapse of World Trade Center is processed in this paper with the finite element software of LS-DYNA. The parameters used in the simulation are discussed with the numerical results. The simulation is very close to the real conditions, which means that using proper numerical model can simulate such complex problems as the collapse of large building. The numerical results also show that the softening of steel under fire and impact load of top floors are the two main reasons for the collapse. If improving the steel fire-resistant ability or enhancing the ductility of the structure, the collapse can be avoided.
Keywords: dynamic finite element, world trade center, collapse of tall building

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